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Graves' Disease is a type of autoimmune disease that causes over-activity of the thyroid gland, causing hyperthyroidism. The cause of these problems is unknown. Although many patients with Graves' disease have redness and irritation of the eyes at some time, less than 1% ever develop enough inflammation of the eye tissues to cause serious or permanent trouble. Graves' disease usually occurs in middle age, but also occurs in children and adolescents. Graves disease is caused by an abnormal immune system response that attacks the thyroid gland, and causes too much production of thyroid hormones. It occurs when your immune system mistakenly attacks your thyroid gland and causes it to overproduce the hormone called thyroxine. Risk factors are being a woman over 20 years old, although the disorder may occur at any age and may affect men as well. Graves disease, along with Hashimoto thyroiditis, is classified as an autoimmune thyroid disorder. In some patients, Graves disease represents part of a more extensive autoimmune process called autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, which is also associated with pernicious anemia, vitiligo, diabetes mellitus type 1, autoimmune adrenal insufficiency, and systemic lupus erythematosus. The symptoms of Graves' disease stem partly from hyperthyroidism and partly as a consequence of autoimmunity. Smoking is also a significant risk factor; it is most strongly associated with the development and persistence of ophthalmopathy in Graves' disease patients, even after treatment.
Graves' disease is rarely life-threatening. Graves' disease is not curable, but is a completely treatable disease. Patients with the disease often have an increased heart rate and enlarged thyroid gland (goiter). In severe cases, the clear covering of the eye (cornea) may ulcerate, or the optic nerve may be damaged which results in a permanent loss of vision. Graves' disease can be caused by a group of different factors that come together to cause thyroid problems, including heredity, your body's immune system, your age, and sex hormones. Graves' disease can be caused by a group of different factors that come together to cause thyroid problems, including heredity, your body's immune system, your age, sex hormones, and possibly stress. Stress, both physical and emotional, is known to affect the responsiveness of the immune system and there appears to be some association between stress and the onset of autoimmune conditions - including Graves' disease. Graves' disease may have its onset after an external stressor in other instances, it may follow a viral infection or pregnancy. Rarely, patients with Graves' disease develop a lumpy reddish thickening of the skin in front of the shins known as pretibial myxedema. This skin condition is usually painless and is not serious.There's no way to stop your immune system from attacking the thyroid gland, but treatments can decrease the production of thyroxine.
Causes of Graves' disease
The common causes and risk factor's of Graves' disease include the following:
Symptoms of Graves' disease
Some sign and symptoms related to Graves' disease are as follows:
Treatment of Graves' disease
Here is list of the methods for treating Graves' disease:
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